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Research Highlights/Contributions of Prof. P. P. Joy

Thu, 25/02/2016 - 2:25pm -- prsvkm
Announcement Issued by
Pineapple Research Station, Vazhakulam
Notification Reference No
Research Highlights/Contributions of Prof. P. P. Joy, Kerala Agricultural University
Date of Notification
Thursday, February 25, 2016

Research Highlights/Contributions of Prof. P. P. Joy, Kerala Agricultural University (Station-wise)



Pulses: In variety evaluation trials V-16 and DPI-1243 cowpea types were found to be high yielders during both kharief and rabi. Consumer preferred red seeded Krishnamony cowpea was the best for summer rice fallows. IIHR-6-1-B was a superior vegetable cowpea. LBG-17 black gram was an excellent yielder and resistant to pulse beetle in rabi.

Management: Optimum time of planting of grain cowpea is from 30 June to 15 July. Irrigation followed by weed control and fertilizer application significantly increased grain yield of summer cowpea while rhizobium inoculation and plant protection did not have significant effect. Relay cropping of kharief rice with rabi black gram is the best for moisture scarce areas.

AT KVK, PATTAMBI (11.8.1987 TO 30.9.1988)

Extension: Imparted one day training to farmers on agriculture, conducted demonstrations, prepared audio-visual aids, broadcast radio talks, organized science and youth clubs, conducted study tours, distributed vegetable seeds and sold KAU publications. Surveyed farm families (100 Nos.) and found non-use of lime.


Lemongrass: Determination of leaf area from length and breadth has been stndardised for small sample L x B x 0.6132, for large samples Leaf dry weight x 164.9444. Cymbopogon flexuosus is most suited and adapted to Kerala than than Jammu C. pendulus – RRL-16 and American C. citrates – OD-439. Planting slips followed by transplanting 25 days old seedlings is better than broadcasting or dibbling. Application of inorganic fertilizers though increases herb yield, does not increase oil yield significantly.

Palmarosa: Application of lime has no response, may be tolerant to acid soils, pH 5.5-6.5. Among N fertilizers, slow release coated fertilizers have no advantage over urea. Application of 40 kg each of P2O5and K2O increases oil yield though not significantly. Thathimalangatha grass is a promising source of geraniol and a substitute for palmarosa.


AICRIP and KAU Trials

Herbicide treatments pretilachlor (0.75 kg ai/ha) and anilophos (0.4 kg ai/ha)  were more economical than hand weeding based on marginal benefit-cost ratio in transplanted rice.

PMT: Rice responds to applied fertilizers only during rabi. Among the three major nutrients, only N produced a significant response. Straw incorporation and lime application had no measurable effect on yield. Soil test recommendation over-predicts the need for lime and it appears less economic.

 Time of K application significantly improved grain and straw yields during kharif, with K applied at Basal + Tillering yielding the maximum. Levels had no difference.

Butachlor (1kg ai/ha) was most economical and best suited to wetland rice.

Applying butachlor 50 EC at 1kg ai/ha 6 DAT was most economical for controlling weeds in transplanted rice.

2,4-D 0.8 kg ai/ha at 20 DAS/T and pyrazo sulfuron ethyl 0.01 kg ai/ha 6 DAS/T effectively control broad-leaved weeds and sedges whereas their combinations with butachlor 1.5 kg ai/ha at 6 DAS/T sprayed on a thin film of water control a broad spectrum of weed flora both in direct sown and transplanted rice. Oxadiazon is effective in direct sown rice. Pretilachlor 0.75-1.0 kg ai/ha and anilophos 0.4-0.6 kg ai/ha at 6 DAT are very useful in transplanted rice but they cause severe scorching in direct sown rice.

Continous application of same/similar herbicides may lead to infestations of tolerant weeds particularly perennials which are difficult to control with herbicides. Hence, herbicides should not be considered as substitute for other weed control practices but as supplements. Therefore, integrated weed control practices are essential not only for satisfactory weed control but also for minimizing establishment and spread of perennial weeds. 


Package of practices for major aromatic and medicinal crops have been standaridized Distillation methods for various essential oil yielding crops have been standardized. Methods of long term storage of essential oils have been  developed.   

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum Presl.) type collection of 234 accessions at Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research Station, Odakkali was evaluated for   growth, yield and quality parameters for four years from 1992. The yields of eugenol and leaf oil were primarily associated with leaf yield which was positively correlated with canopy spread and plant height.  Large leaf size and intense purple colour of flushes were by and large wild characteristics in cinnamon.   Selection for improvement in leaf oil or eugenol yield can be attempted indirectly using leaf yield which is governed mostly by canopy spread. The accession ODC-130 was identified to be the most promising followed by  ODC-10 and ODC-67.  A eugenol-rich leaf oil yielding cinnamon variety Sugandhini (ODC-130) with a leaf oil yield of 300 ml/tree/yr, oil recovery 1.6% on fresh weight basis (3.7% on dry weight basis) and eugenol 94% is recommended for leaf oil. 

Both mother and finger rhizomes can be utilized for planting. Use of seed bits of size 5-7g is found to give maximum yield of rhizome and will economize the seed rate.

A herbal garden comprising of about 450 species of medicinal plants have been stablished. Suitability of cultivation of various medicinal plants in coconut garden was demonstrated.

The ICAR project on Standardisation of agrotechniques in lesser known aromatic and medicinal plants of Zingiberaceae could evolve the agronomic practices of Alpinia galanga, Curcuma zedoaria and Kaempferia rotunda of Zingiberaceae. Twelve species of Zingiberaceae available in the Western Ghats were collected and established in the herbal garden of the Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research Station, Odakkali. Growth, yield and quality parameters of selected species were studied. Market survey and quality evaluation of crude drug of selected species were undertaken. The status of research on zingiberaceous plants was reviewed. Future areas of research are also suggested.

Alpinia calcarata rhizomes are used in many formulations that stimulate digestion, purifies blood, improves voice and maintains vigour. It is a perennial herb growing up to a metre producing around 24 suckers/plant/year. Fresh rhizome yields of 23t/ha (6t/ha dry) is obtained by planting 1-1.5t/ha of seed rhizomes at 40 x 30 cm spacing with 20t/ha of FYM or 100:50:50 kg N:P:K/ha/year and harvesting between 36 and 42 months after planting. Application of biofertilisers, green manuring and mulching are beneficial for further improving the yields. Both rhizome (0.22%) and root (0.55%) contain essential oil.

Curcuma zedoaria (wild turmeric or kastoorimanjal of commerce) is used as appetizer, tonic, blood purifier and cosmetic. It is useful in flatulence and dyspepsia and also for worms and skin diseases. It produces maximum yield of rhizome (28 t/ha), essential oil (0.33%) and oeoresin (5.5%) when 1.5 t/ha of seed rhizomes are planted at 60 x 40 cm spacing with the receipt of pre-monsoon showers in May and harvested in January. Application of 20t/ha of FYM, 100:50:50 kg N:P:K/ha, biofertilisers, green manuring and mulching maximize the yields.

Kaempferia rotunda (Chengazhinirkizhangu) is useful for inflammations, wounds, ulcers, blood clots, tumours and cancerous swellings. It helps to improve complexion and cure burning sensation, mental disorders and insomnia. Fresh rhizome yield of 13 t/ha is obtained under rainfed conditions by planting the seed rhizome at 20 x 20 cm spacing with adequate mulching and organic manure application as in the case of Alpinia calcarata.

A study on the effect of drying and storage methods on the quality of Kaempferia rotunda rhizome conducted at the Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research Station, Odakkali (Kerala Agricultural University) during 1996-1999 revealed that drying of sliced rhizomes for four days in sun ensures best preservation. However, an additional expenditure is involved in slicing the rhizomes. Satisfactory results are obtained when whole rhizomes sun dried for four days and stored in gunny bag. The latter method offers substantial savings in processing cost. Considering the economics and practicability, storage of whole rhizome in gunny bags after sun drying for four days is recommended. Still better results can be expected if the moisture content of the whole rhizome is further brought down by prolonged sun drying.

Doing Ph. D. On study leave at COH, Vellanikkara (27.12.1999 TO 30.11.2000)


Agrotechnological practices for quality crude drug production in nilappana (Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.)

Curculigo orchioides has an active growth phase for 7 months, after which it could be harvested for quality rhizome

Panamkuzhi biotype is comparatively better for cultivation and quality drug formulations

Curculigo orchioides is a shade loving plant and its growth, yield and quality are best under 25% shade at 10 x 10 cm spacing

Organic manure and fertilizer in 75:25 proportion is ideal for best yield and quality

Poultry manure is the best nutrient source for highest rhizome yield

With this agrotechnology, over  2.5 t ha-1 of fresh (1.0 t dry) good quality rhizome can be produced

Crude drug from High Ranges of  Kerala is superior in quality

There exists large variability in the market samples and there is need for proper standardisation of quality in crude drug

Developed POP for Curculigo orchioides


RICE– Agronomy: RARS, PTB, 2002-03 Kharif & Rabi

Research Highlights 2002-03 Kharif & Rabi

Line sowing + 100% NPK recorded higher grain yield which was on par with the treatments involving NPK indicating that  inorganic fertilizer is inevitable for boosting the yield of upland rice Swarnaprabha.
Transplanting with green leaves 5t/ha, Factomfos 100 kg/ha basal and Urea 11/2 MAT recorded the highest yield of 4262 kg/ha
50% of the recommended N is sufficient for both very early and early varieties in kharif season.  Under very early type, IET-16933 gave the highest yield of 2790 kg/ha which was on par with 2758 kg/ha produced by local check Annapoorna.  Among the early varieties IET-17037 recorded the highest grain yield of 2647 kg/ha which was on par with 2588 kg/ha produced by the local check Kanchana.
FYM 10 t/ha had significant effect on grain yield.  Maximum grain yield was recorded when fertilizers were applied at 150% (of 70:35:35 kg/ha) both in kharif and rabi seasons for Jyothi
Inter cropping with green manure is feasible in dry sown rice.  Growing of pulse crops like cowpea, green gram and horse gram ensured green matter addition to the soil.
SSP, Rajphos and Udaiphos were on par as a source of phosphorus for irrigated rice
Pyrazosulfuron ethyl 50WP, 0.025 kg ai/ha 8-10 DAT and Butachlor (Machete) 20WP, 0.938, 3 DAT followed by Almix 50EC, 0.004, 21-25 DAT were the choice herbicides for transplanted rice
Almix + Butachlor and Butachlor alone were also effective in checking weed growth
Butachlor 1.25 kgai/ha+1hand weeding, Pretilachlor 0.7kgai/ha + Butachlor post emergent, Line sowing 20x10cm + Pretilachlor + row weeding controlled weeds efficiently
Butachlor +Propanil, Pyrazosulfuron ethyl and Halosulfuron methyl  though showed slight  crop toxicity  were  effective for weed control in direct sown rice under puddled condition.  Toxicity was low with Almix.
Halosulfuron methyl 75WG is effective against sedges and broad leaved weeds.  NC-319 75WG @ 45 g ai/ha and @ 37.5 g ai/ha at 6DAT were on par with two hand weeding at 15 and 30 DAT in transplanted rice
In a well-prepared and managed rice nursery weed infestation is very low and hardly there exists any need for weed control


The project on Agrotechnological practices for quality crude drug production in nilappana (Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.) developed Package of Practices for Curculigo orchioides. It was established that nilappana had an active growth phase for 7 months, after which it could be harvested for quality rhizome. Panamkuzhi biotype was comparatively better for cultivation and quality drug formulations. It was a shade loving plant and its growth, yield and quality were best under 25% shade at 10 x 10 cm spacing. Organic manure and fertilizer in 75:25 proportion was ideal for best yield and quality. Poultry manure was the best nutrient source for highest rhizome yield. With this agrotechnology, over  2.5 t ha-1 of fresh (1.0 t dry) good quality rhizome could be produced. Black musli or Nilappana rhizome developed upward. It was slow growing, less competitive and poor yielding. It could not withstand weed competition and rodent attacks. Hence, appropriate control measures were essential for successful cultivation. There existed large variability in the market samples and there was need for proper standardisation of quality in crude drug. Crude drug from High Ranges of Kerala was superior in quality.

In the ICAR project on Development of lemongrass oleoresin for flavouring, the extraction of oleoresin from lemongrass was standardised, including the part of the plant, pre-processing requirements, type of solvent and the time of extraction. The 450 lemongrass accessions were evaluated for oleoresin, the best types identified and its agronomic practices were developed. Dried fine powder of leaf lamina and leaf sheath was found to be best suited for oleoresin extraction. Among the solvents tried methanol gave highest yield of oleoresin (17.9%). Methanol with 75 minutes boiling, 10 minutes rinsing and one time washing was the best method for hot extraction of lemongrass oleoresin. Protocols were developed for the extraction of oleoresin from lemongrass which could be adopted for the pilot scale extraction of lemongrass oleoresin. Cold extraction of oleoresin could be advocated for flavouring beverages like tea.  The lemongrass accession OD-410 can be put to commercial cultivation for the large scale extraction of oleoresin of best quality. Agronomic practices including the optimum time of harvest and fertiliser management practices could be adopted in the commercial cultivation of lemongrass intended for oleoresin extraction. A review of current status of research on lemongrass is also included in the report.

Developed CD on medicinal plants, conducted workshops, agri-clinics, imparted training to farmers, broadcast radio talks,  maintained amprs website (http://www.kau.edu/amprs). Prepared Lemongrass (Cybopogon citratus) datasheet for Crop Protection Compendium of CABI, Nosworthy Way, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8DE, UK

Published books and Souvenir of National Workshop on Grower-Industry Linkage for Promotion of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Cultivation. Conducted Agri-clinics, workshops,  imparted training to farmers, broadcast radio talks,  distributed  publications  and maintained good liaison with farmers, traders and user industries, maintained amprs website (http://www.kau.edu/amprs).

In the NMPB Project, Agrotechnology for cultivation of Bacopa monnieri was developed and GAP monograph prepared.


Pineapple breeding for yield & quality was conducted to develop pineapple varieties suitable for processing and table purpose through hybridization. The traditional pineapple verities of Kerala, ie, Kew and Mauritius were hybridized and F1 hybrids were planted in the field and selections were made based on favorable yield and qualitative characteristics. The suckers of superior types were subsequently planted in the field and the evaluation carried out continuously. Fruit weight with and without crown, crown weight and TSS were being taken and the data were utilized for the selection of superior types (T3).

In the Evaluation of Fungicide Samarth (Hexaconazole 2% SC) against Pineapple Collar Rot & Other Diseases, Hexaconazole 0.5% is more efficient in disease control though it slightly affected plant growth in terms of plant height and leaf length in the early stages with no marked difference thereafter. Hexaconazole 0.4% is safest with good disease control efficiency.

In the Selection of High Yielding Superior Quality Pineapple Variety for Central Zone of Kerala in PTD mode, based on the total fruit yield for three years (2011-13) Mauritius performed the best followed by T3 and MD-2.  The most popular international pineapple variety MD-2 with cylindrical shape, flat eyes, narrow core, more pulp, better shelf life and less core browning was domesticated, evaluated and popularized. MD-2 suckers yield in one year and quality is comparable to Mauritius. However, it produces few suckers and slightly more susceptible to fungal disease in Kerala.

In the KSCSTE Project: Evaluation of Passion Fruit Types for Commercial Cultivation in Kerala, 14 promising passion fruit types out of 150 accessions obtained from different parts of South India were studied for its phenology, growth, yield and quality parameters. Among them, best purple accession 134P, a collection from Seven Mallay Estate, Tata Tea Ltd, Munnar, was selected based on growth, yield and quality parameters including organoleptic evaluation and recommended for commercial cultivation in the mid lands of Kerala. 134P had single fruit weight 104.54 g, juice recovery 33.54%, yield 24.92 fruits/plant/year, totally weighing 2.52 kg/plant/year or 2800 kg/ha/year, producing  937 kg/ha/year of juice as the mean of first two years.

KPM-Organic versus inorganic nutrient management of pineapple varieties. 3 varieties: Mauritius, Amritha, MD2; & 4 nutrient sources: control, organic, inorganic, integrated is ongoing.

Dr. P. P. Joy

Projects Handled


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Pineapple Research Station
Kerala Agricultural University
Ernakulam Kerala 686670