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Marketing

Today, pineapple consumers not only consider the physical appearance of the fruit to make a purchasing decision and such process has become more complex. In addition to physical appearance other qualities are considered, including color, sweetness, aroma, fruit uniformity, size and country of origin or brand name. The proper time for harvest depends on its end use. Fruits for export should be cut when the fruit is completely developed but green. Pineapples for domestic market are cut mature but not fully ripened. Harvest is made manually; the fruit is torn to tear it from the peduncle. For transport, fruits are placed on leaves or a sawdust bed alternated with crowns, to decrease mechanical damage. It is not advised to pile up too many layers of fruit. Harvested fruits are placed in trucks or wagons crown side down and up to 3 layers high. It is important to avoid fruit overheating either in the field as well as during transport and handling. Fruits are taken to the packing plant and then washed and coated with a mixture of a fungicide and a liquid wax. For international markets pineapple is classified as: US Select (10 fruits of 1.4 to 1.8 kg), No. 1 (8 fruits of 1.81 to 2.0 kg) and No. 2 (6 fruits of 2.01 to 2.5 Kg).

Packing for export markets is a one-piece box made of telescopic fiber capable of holding 9 kg (20 lb) or 18 kg (40 lb). In order to get better fruit strength during transport and prevent damages, pineapples with 1/4 ripening (yellow color at the base of the fruit covering 25% of the surface) are selected.

Transport temperature and relative humidity should be 7 to 13°C (45 - 55°F) and 85 to 90%, respectively. Chilling injury may occur below 7°C (45°F). Pineapples for export must meet the following requirements: uniform size and shape, proper firmness, free of rotting, sunburns, cracks, bruises, internal breakdown endogenous brown spot, gummosis and damages caused by insects. Crown leaves should be green, medium length and erected. Soluble solids must fall between 11 and 18%, titratable acidity as citric acid from 0.5 to 1.6%, Ascorbic acid should fall between 20 and 65 mg/100g of fresh weight, depending on the cultivar and stage of maturity.

Waxing can be applied to modify internal O2 and CO2 contents of the fruit in such a way to reduce the occurrence and severity of endogenous brown spot. Sea transportation is the main form of handling pineapple for international trade of fruits and vegetables. It is the most economical and specialized means for handling large amounts of fresh produce. Depending on the volume, it can be done in refrigerated ships (reefers) or in containers equipped with cooling systems. Reefers are usually large capacity vessels (over 4,000 tons) and are equipped with efficient air circulation systems with control of air velocity and exchange. Loading is made through side scuttles or by continuous conveyors installed from the pier to the cargo warehouses. The Reefers are specialized forms of transport for fruits and vegetables, they have builtin good thermal insulation and ducts designed for cold air circulation, as supplied by the refrigeration system (Con-Air System) or with independent cooling system connected to the electrical network (Reefer System).         

Shipment in container carriers which in turn are usually equipped with electric supply and outlets; thus, containers have the autonomy to self-contain the cargo with no need of additional facilities to keep the storage temperature constant. There are also refrigerated containers with controlled atmospheres, which can adjust levels of O2, CO2, relative humidity and temperature. Refrigerated containers are built with standard dimensions: 8 x 8 feet wide, and either 10, 20, 30 or 40 feet long. The most common containers are those with 40 feet long, and then those with pies 20 feet long. 

Preharvest ethylene treatment

Ethrel (Ethephon), has been used as a source of ethylene for decades and it is used to initiate flowering in pineapples. It has also been applied just before harvesting to accelerate degreening and therefore the development of the orange colour in the skin. In Queensland, Smooth Cayenne pineapples treated prior to harvest with Ethrel, at a concentration of 2.5 l in 1000 l of water, had superior eating quality, degreened more evenly, but had a shorter shelf-life due to accelerated skin senescence than untreated fruit 10 days after harvest. Treated fruit left on the plant for 23 days had inferior eating quality to the untreated fruit. These effects are probably due to the effect of the ethylene speeding up the maturation of the fruit.

Physiological disorder

Internal browning, also known as blackheart, is a major storage disorder, often associated with chilling injury. In Australia when the night-time temperature fell below 21°C, internal browning of the fruit could be detected postharvest. Treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at 0.1 ppm (4.5 nmol litre–1) for 18 hours at 20°C effectively controlled internal browning during subsequent storage at 10°C for 4 weeks. These results suggest that ethylene may be involved in the internal browning. There was a relationship between ultrasonic velocity and the internal browning in pineapples so that this technique may be used to detect its presence.

Disease control

Infection of the fruit is commonly through the cut fruit stalk. Dipping this area directly after it has been cut is normally sufficient to control postharvest disease. This allows for reduced levels of fungicide  application that may therefore result in lower residue levels and lower the costs of the chemical used.

Vapour heat treatment

A recommended treatment was 43°C in saturated air for 8 hours and then holding the temperature for a further 6 hours.

Packaging

Pineapples will only fit into boxes in small numbers of around four or six packed vertically or horizontally with a crown of leaves cut to fit snugly into the box.

Storage

In a study in South Africa, the most suitable storage temperature for Queen (harvested at 50–80% yellow and less than 10% sugar content) was 14°C, with no chilling injury occurring in storage at about 12°C. However, some internal browning was noted after storage at all temperatures between 10–20°C. In subsequent work it was found that internal browning was associated with prestorage stress and was not a problem with initially sound fruit. Queen pineapples stored at 2 or 4°C developed a white, watery pulp while fruit stored at higher temperatures developed internal browning. Storage at 3°C and 8°C for longer than 2 weeks resulted in the crown and shell appearance being unacceptable. At a room temperature of 20°C and 60% r.h. they could be kept for only about 3 days.

Refrigerated storage recommendations are as follows:

10°C and 90% r.h. for 2–4 weeks for green fruit (Anon 1967)

4.5–7°C and 90% r.h. for 2–4 weeks for ripe fruit (Anon 1967)

8.6°C in South Africa (Hulme 1971)

8°C Smooth Cayenne could be stored for 1 week without chilling injury (Dull 1971)

7°C with a maximum storage period of 4 weeks (Akamine et al. 1975)

7°C for at least 7 days (Smith 1983)

8.3–10°C and 85–90% r.h. for 4–6 weeks with 4% loss for all green fruit (Pantastico 1975)

14.4–6.7°C and 85–90% r.h. for 1–2 weeks for 25% yellow fruit (Pantastico 1975)

10°C and 90–95% r.h. for 2–3 weeks for unripe fruit (Mercantilia 1989)

7–8°C and 90–95% r.h. for 5–7 days for ripe fruit (Mercantilia 1989)

10–13°C and 90% r.h. for 3–4 weeks for mature green fruit (Snowdon 1990)

7–10°C and 90% r.h. for 3–4 weeks for turning fruit (Snowdon 1990)

7°C and 90% r.h. for 2–4 weeks for ripe fruit (Snowdon 1990)

10°C and 85–90% r.h. for 14–36 days (SeaLand 1991)

8 or 12°C for <3 weeks (Haruenkit and Thompson 1993).

Chilling injury

Mature green pineapples are very susceptible to chilling injury when stored at temperatures below 10°C. Immature fruit should not be shipped because they were prone to chilling injury. Chilling injury occurred in Smooth Cayenne below 7°C. At 8°C Smooth Cayenne could be stored for 1 week without chilling injury.

The characteristics of chilling injury in Smooth Cayenne as described by Dull (1971) are:

  • failure of the green shell colour to turn to yellow
  • the yellow shell fruit turning brown or dull colour
  • shrivelling of the shell
  • drying and wilting and discoloration of crown tip.

At low temperature the fruit’s skin darkens in severe cases of injury. The breaking up of internal tissue gives a watery appearance. The watery appearance is the advanced stage of the watery spots appearing at the base of fruitlets. The symptoms developed when fruit was stored at temperatures within the range 18–30°C after storage below 7°C. The crown is more susceptible to low-temperature injury than the fruit itself and for European markets a well developed crown is required. Crown leaves that turn brown at the edge or become limp detract from the appearance of the fruit and usually reduce its market value. The effect of low-temperature storage on shell appearance and the crown was said to be due to a loss of water. The crown is the site of most of the fruit’s initial weight loss, having stomata that appear to be open with no diurnal cycling.

Controlled atmosphere storage

Storage recommendations are:

7.2°C with 2% O2 for Smooth Cayenne (Akamine and Goo 1971)

10–15°C with 5% O2 and 10% CO2 at (Kader et al. 1985)

8°C with either 3% O2 and 5% CO2, or 3% O2 and 0% CO2 for Smooth Cayenne, but it did not suppress the internal browning symptoms (Paull and Rohrbach 1985)

22°C with 3% O2 in the first week of storage followed by 8°C effectively reduced internal browning symptoms (Paull and Rohrbach 1985)

10–15°C with 10% CO2 and 5% O2 had a fair effect, but was not being used commercially (Kader 1985)

8–13°C with 5–10% CO2 and 2–5% O2 (Kader 1989, 1992)

10°C with 10% CO2 with 5% O2 (SeaLand 1991)

7–13°C and 85–90% r.h. with 2–5% O2 and 5–10% CO2 for 2–4 weeks (Burden 1997).

Hypobaric storage

Storage of pineapples under hypobaric condition can extend the storage life for up to 30–40 days.

Transport

For transportation by sea freight a storage temperature of 7–8°C for ripe and 10°C for unripe fruit has been recommended.

Grading

After harvesting, the fruits are graded according to size, shape, maturity, and freedom from diseases and blemishes. The cut surface is treated with a suitable fungicide to control fungal decay. 

Grading Standards  

Class

Weight (g)

A

above 1500

B

1100 - 1500

C

800 - 1100

D

550 - 800

Baby

Less than 550

 

Packaging

For local markets, fruits are packed in bamboo baskets lined with paddy-straw. The first layer of fruits is arranged in such a way that they stand on their stumps. The second layer of fruits is arranged on the crowns of the first layer fruits. Each basket weighs 20-25 kg. For distant markets, fruit are wrapped individually with paddy straw and then packed.

For export purpose the pineapples are packed into fibreboard or wood containers. The fruits are placed vertically or horizontally in container. The interspace between the fruits should be filled with straw and firm lining all around the container. For long-distance transportation, fruits are held at 7°C for 10-20 days. 

Storage

When fruits are transported for long distances or to be stored for several days, refrigerated transport is required to slow down ripening process. In tropical areas, partially ripe, healthy and unbruised pineapple could be stored for almost 20 days when refrigerated at 10-130C with RH 85-90%. Fruits harvested in early stage of ripening are stored at 7-10°C. Exposure of pineapples to temperatures below 7°C results in chilling injury. Controlled atmosphere storage (3-5% O2 and 5-8% CO2) delayed senescence and reduced respiration.

Processing

A number of pineapple processing units are coming up in the State apart from the ones currently in operation, targeting overseas markets. Agreenco has set up a pineapple processing unit in Kannur at an investment of Rs 26 crore for exporting canned slices to the US. This unit will export 15,500 tonnes of packaged pineapple a year. The project is being set up in collaboration with Ashco Inc of the US.

Nirmal Agro Industries has set up another processing unit in Kochi, with plans to export 130 tonnes of canned pineapple a day to the US.

Nadukkara Agro Processing Co Ltd (NAPCL), maker of the `Jive' brand of packaged fruit juice is also there in the scene. Jive fights with brands such as Tropicana from Pepsi and Real from Dabur for its survival. Jive, which comes in two flavours - Splash, a mango-pineapple nectar, and Punch, a pineapple drink. NAPCL launches a mango flavour under the `Jive Mango Joozy' brand. NAPCL also makes candies from pineapple. The other stream of business is making pineapple and mango juice concentrates, which the company sells to other packaged drink makers in the national and international markets.

Marketing

In Kerala, major share of the produce reaches the market during the months of February to April and the arrivals are very low during the rainy months of June and July. In Ernakulam District a specialized local pineapple market has been functioning for the past 10-12 years at Vazhakulam. Pineapple trading is there in the market more or less throughout the year, even in lean seasons. It is estimated that only 30% of the total produce is reaching the market, whereas the rest is being traded at the farm gate itself. During the last five years, the lowest price received by the producer was Rs 5 per kg and the maximum price was Rs 22 per kg.

Apart from internal trade in other local markets, fresh fruits are being transported to other areas like Mumbai, Ahammedabad, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Delhi, Mysore, Surat etc and also to Middle East countries. During February – April months, on an average 100 t of fresh pineapple is getting transported daily to distant places like Mumbai, Banglore and sometimes it may go upto 500 t. Experience has shown that during this long journey, through torturous roads which were constructed very badly and virtually not maintained at all, as much as 30 per cent of the fruit could be damaged.

Cool Chain

Cool chain is essential during the transport of export quality commodity all the way from the farm to the customer. This helps in maintaining the temperature inside the box at the same low level as in the cold storage.

The various stages of the cool chain are :

1.  Coldstore at the farm.

2.  Refrigerated truck from farm to the airport

3.  Coldstore at the airport.

4.  Building up of the pallet in a coldstore at the airport.

5.  Loading the aircrafts directly from the coldstore in a short time.

6.  Cargo aircraft maintains coldstore temperature in hold.

7.  Off loading direct into a coldstore in the receiving country.

8.  Refrigerated truck to the customers. 

Export, grading and packing

For reduction of post-harvest disease incidence, the fruit should be treated, by dipping or spraying, with a solution of Dowicide A (sodium 2-phenylphenolate) at a concentration of 7 g per litre of water. Size grading and packing should be carried out immediately after treatment. Pineapples are packed according to the stage of ripeness and the size of the fruit. Fruits in individual cartons should be the same size, resulting in a range of counts.

Accepted counts are as follows:

6 count - 1.75 kg fruit (3.8 lb)
12 count - 1.25 kg fruit (2.7 lb)
12 count - 1.00 kg fruit (2.2 lb)
20 count - 0.75 kg fruit (1.6 lb)

A full-telescopic two-piece fibre-board carton with internal dividers between the fruit; bursting strength 275 lb/in2. Top and bottom ventilation, in addition to side vents are required, particularly where sea-shipments in break bulk are used. Where staples are used in carton construction, care should be taken to ensure complete staples closure to prevent fruit damage. The preferred method of packing is to place the fruit vertically on the base, and then to place dividers between the fruits to prevent rubbing and movement. With some cartons, this is not possible and fruit are laid horizontally in alternating directions; where two layers of fruit are packed, a layer of card is required between the layers. Fruit are normally packed to a net weight of 10 to 15 kg (22 to 33 lb) depending on the carton and the market. High value small pineapples may be shipped in some instances at 6 kg (13 lb), whereas the large fruit in some cases may be packed up to 20 kg (45 lb).

Carton internal dimensions

27 x 48 x 34 cm (10.6" x 18.9" x 13.4")
20 x 51 x 34 cm (7.9" x 20" x 13.4")

Storage and transportation

Where sea-shipment is to be used, the fruit should be harvested on the day prior to shipment. Green fruit should be stored at 10°C, 85 to 95% relative humidity, and under these conditions, should have a storage life of 2-3 weeks. This will be dependent on the sugar content and the agronomic conditions during production, in addition to the handling and storage procedures. Where exports are made by air with fruit harvested at more advanced stages of maturity, pre-export storage can be used and the suitable storage temperature decreases to 7.5 °C, 85 to 95% relative humidity.

Potential post-harvest losses

Losses in pineapples during air-transport are minimal if careful handling is employed. On sea-shipments and long-term storage however, the fruits are more susceptible to post-harvest losses as a result of increased handling, control of temperature and disease incidence.

 Mechanical damage

Bruising or puncturing caused by poor handling, dropping or abrasion, will result in localised areas of softening and development of secondary microbial infection.

 Low temperature

Sensitivity to chilling injury is related to the level of ripeness of the fruit. Storage of green fruit (CS 1) should be at 10°C, 85 to 95% relative humidity; storage for extended periods below this temperature will result in chilling injury shown by incomplete colour development, wilting and darkening of the flesh and peel. Pineapples with 25% yellow eyes can be stored for 1-2 weeks at 5° to 7°C; critical temperatures may be dependent on the production area and growing conditions.

 Pathological factors

  • Black rot
    Black rot caused by Ceratocystis results in a black watery rot of the flesh and a thin brittle skin. Infection usually occurs through the cut stem or through damaged areas, but can generally be controlled by prompt treatment with either Dowicide A or Thaibendazole. Black spot or brown spot caused by Penicillium funiculosum and Fusarium moniliformae results in browning and sinking of the eyes and a browning of the internal fruitlets. Incidence is not usually detected until the fruit is cut. The diseases are believed to be caused by mite damage in the field allowing entry of the fungi. Pre-harvest spraying regimes are required to control the mite population.

  • Endogenous brown spot

Physiological disorder characterized by watery spots, eventually coalesce and turn brown. The incidence is found in certain varieties and production areas and is generally enhanced during long term storage.

PROTOCOL FOR PINEAPPLE “KERALA MAURITIUS” VARIETY FOR EXPORT TO SHORTER DURATION (15-18 DAYS)

  1. Pre-harvest Management – Pre-harvest management are applied under field condition which plays an import role for the shelf life of the produce i.e. fertigation, soil management, water management, pests & disease management, and weed control.  Hence, it is necessary to collect the information on the above-mentioned practices implemented at farm.

The pre-harvest practices are subjected to the following provisions:

i)                    Whole crown.

ii)                  The crown should be free of dead or dried leaves.

iii)                Healthy produce generally affected by rotting or deterioration to make the fruit unfit for consumption.

iv)                Fruits should be clean, practically free from any visible foreign matter.

v)                  Fruits should be free from internal browning.

vi)                Fruits should be free from damage caused by pests.

vii)              Free from pronounced blemishes.

viii)            Free from damage caused by low / higher temp. in field conditions.

ix)                Free from external moisture, excluding condensation following removal from cold storage.

x)                  When a peduncle is present, it shall not be longer than two centimeters and the cut must be transferred straight & clean.

  1. Maturity of the Fruit – The fruit must be chemically ripe i.e. without evidence of unripeness (opaque, flavourless, exceedingly pours flesh) or over ripeness (exceedingly translucent or fermented flesh).  Harvesting of pineapple can be started when fruit has started turn in colour i.e. base of fruit has just coloured, earliest a fruit of pineapple can be harvested is when 1/8th surface of the (bottom side) has become coloured.  Therefore, different stages at which fruits are harvested are:

i)                    1/8th surface coloured.

ii)                  1/4th surface coloured

iii)                1/3rd surface coloured

iv)                1/2 surface coloured

v)                  2/3rd surface coloured

vi)                Fully coloured 

However, for export purposes one has to harvest between 1/8th surface colored to 1/4th surface colored depending upon the time it will take to reach destination during which time the color development also takes place.  However, do not harvest before the fruit turn in colour stage.  In the international trade fruit maturity index is measure as below: 

i)                    M0             -           Raw fruit

ii)                  M1             -           1/8th turn colour stage

iii)                M2             -           1/2 turn colour stage

iv)                M3             -           Fully color turn stage 

Moreover, the minimum T.SS should be 12.0 to 13.0 B in the world market.  This T.SS in the fruit are attained if the fruits are harvested earliest only when the fruit has just started turn colour. 

  1. Tests are required / Carried out – Certain tests are necessary at the field level while selecting the fruits for harvesting.  The test are equipment required are given below:

i)                    T.S.S.                    -           Refractrometer

ii)                  Firmness of fruit   -              Pentameter

iii)                pH                         -           pH meter

iv)                Pulp temp              -            Probe thermometer

v)                  Weight                  -            Weighing scale

vi)                Size                       -           Plastic rings of different size 

  1. Special considerations

i)                    The fruit should be free of blemishes, bruises, sunscald, black rot, internal browning, mealy bug, mite, thrips and scale insects etc.

ii)                  The stem end must cut smoothly and should not be more than 2.0 cm.

iii)                The preference should be given to uniformity in color, weight, size and homogenous variety. 

  1. Harvesting

i)                    It should be carried out preferably in the early hours of the morning or late afternoon when the temperature is low.

ii)                  Harvesting should not be performed after rains, till complete removal of moisture from the fruits.  If necessary or unavoidable, then fruit should be subjected to compulsory high-speed air-drying.

iii)                Fruits should not bruise during harvesting.

iv)                Do not put the fruit on the ground, harvested fruits should be put in crates on plastic baskets having cushioning of papers.

v)                  Use a sharp knife for harvesting, giving a smooth cut, the stem end should not be more than 2.0 cm long. 

vi)                After harvesting fruit should be kept in shade.  Every care needs to be taken that crown leaves are not damaged or crown is not twisted.  

  1. Transportation of fruits from field to Packhouse

i)                    Transport the fruits immediately to Packhouse without any loss of time.

ii)                  Transport should be available on demand at the time of harvest so that there is no time gap between harvesting and transportation of pineapple

iii)                As far as possible there should not be any jerks or bumps during transportation to avoid any bruises to the fruits.

iv)                The vehicle should be clean to avoid any infection to the fruits.

v)                  Preferably no other product should be transported along with pineapples. 

  1. Processing of material at Packhouse

i)                    The material received and kept at 23-25 ˚C temperature in Packhouse.

ii)                  Cutting the stem end / Peduncle and sorting – First action should be cut the stem end smoothly, if not done properly as suggested above that it should not be more than 2.0 cm long.  Long end will bruise the other fruits.  During this operation no damage should be caused to the fruits. Before use of the sharp knife, this should be disinfected with 0.1% Sodium Hydrochloride solution quite frequently. 

8.      Sorting:  All the fruits should be sorted out having sunspot or sunscald or having damaged crowns, or having multiple fasciated fruits. Fruit having infestation of mealy bug, mite, thrips, scale insects and diseased one should be sorted out. The deformed fruit shape and twisted crowns etc. should be sorted out. More over even under sized/oversized /immature fruits or damaged one should be rejected at this stage. 

9.      Washing of the fruits: After trimming, cutting the stem and sorting etc., the fruit are subjected to clean soft water washing. If fruit are quite dirty, then in washing water a disinfectant like sodium hypochlorite needs to be added @ 100-200 ppm. Chlorine in the water solution. After chlorine disinfection rinsing with clean water is absolutely essential. It is desired that no hard water with heavy minerals/metals or contaminated with chemicals used for washing of the fruit at any stage. 

10.  Hot water treatments: The fruit should be subjected to 53.˚C temp for 5-7 minutes Hot water treatment to kill the mealybug, scale insects thrips, mites and prevent  from storage rots. 

11.  Fungicidal treatment: Usually 1000 ppm thibendazole or Bevistin are applied for disinfected the fruits from pathogens associated at pre-harvest stage with fruits. The fruit should be dipped for 3-5 minutes depending upon the size of the fruit. 

12.  Air Drying: Before taking the wax treatment it is essential that fruit should be subjected to air-drying to eliminate the excess of water adhering to the shell of the fruits. 

13.  Waxing: It should be carried out with edible wax solution e.g. starfresh wax 45/ having Thiabendazole @1000 ppm is quit suitable.  Correct and effective fungicidal and wax treatment is absolutely essential otherwise it can result into heavy post harvest loses. 

14.  Packaging: Pineapple are packed along with crowns for prolong shelf life and to avoid infection at the crowns attachment point. These are two methods are used i.e. Horizontal packing and vertical packing keeping the cream on the topside. 

15.  Coding and labeling: Each carton should be coded for date of packing, product & growers code for tracing the products origin etc. The boxes should be corrugated and required strength as advice by the Indian Institute of Packaging, Mumbai and box should contain the following information: 

(i)                 Name of the Product

(ii)               Variety

(iii)             Grade/ class

(iv)             Origin of produce

(v)               Date of packing

(vi)             Name of Exporter

(vii)           Grass weight/ Net Weight

(viii)         Number of fruit per box

(ix)             Maturity stage (At the time of packing)

(x)               Recommended storage temp & R.H. 

16. Pre-cooling:    Pineapple are very sensitive to temperature. The fruit defending upon mode of transport should be cooled as soon as possible at least with in 10 hours of harvest.           

            Pre-cooling temp: 1/8th mature fruit – 13-15 ˚C for 6 to 8 hours. Depending upon the size of fruits when pulp center temp obtained about 13-13.5 ˚C tmp. 

17.   Reefer cold storage / Transportation by reefer container: The fruit should be stored at 12.˚C at 85%R.H.  When the fruit pulp temp attain 12-12.5 ˚C temp and RH 85% may be transported to short distances (Journey period up to 10 days) 8-10 days for consumption.

18  Steps have to followed for Export of Pineapples 

  • Harvesting – 1/8th fruit turned color.
  • Harvesting timing – Early morning or late afternoon (Temp 25-30 ˚C)
  • Storing material after harvest in field under shade condition and put the product in plastic crates.
  • Transportation in to packhouse.
  • Receipt the produce & record of the pre-harvest management
  • Trimming / cut the stem and at 2.0 cm long with sharp knife
  • Sorting of the fruit
  • Washing of the fruit with soft as portable water
  • Hot water treatment 53.˚C (5-7 minutes)
  • Fungicidal treatment 
  • Air drying
  • Waxing
  • Packing labeling
  • Palletization
  • Pre-cooling (13-15’c for 6-8 hours)
  • Store in reefer condition ( 12-12.5’c) 85% RH 
  • Transportation by Reefer Containers

Post harvest treatment and observation on shelf life of Mauritius Pineapples in CA lab APEDA 

Observation on 16.0˚C Reefer Conditions: The fruits were received uneven size and varying maturity. The organoliptic tests carried out in the lab revealed that fruit were received of higher maturity i.e. TSS index 17˚B where as it desired about 12-13˚B. pH was 3.04 where as desired is 2.5 to 2.8. Fruit pressures was about the discussed firmness i.e. 8-10 Kg/Cm2. Fruit temp was also of desired level – 20-25 ˚C. 

It was observed on 15th day after the harvest that there is no much change in T.S.S. of the fruits and temp. was also at set temp of 16.0 BpH was considerably increased it shows the higher suger break down of the fruits or reduces the shelf life of the products. The 16.0 B reefer temp has drastically changed the pH and taste & flavour of the fruits. 

Reefer Condition, 10-c & R.H. 85%: The observation on 15th days of the trials revealed that pH was increased and T.S.S. was also increased but after words observations revealed that there is no significant change in T.S.S. and up to 19th days the flavour and taste was good & ok. Thus it is recommended that 12.0’c may be treated as protocol for the pineapple Mauritius variety at 85+R.H. for South East & Middle East Countries.

Protocol for export PDF Format

Value Chain Analysis and Market Studies of Fruits and Vegetables

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Address

Pineapple Research Station
Kerala Agricultural University
Vazhakkulam
Muvattupuzha
Ernakulam Kerala 686670
:+91-485-2260832
:+919446010905
:+91-485-2260832